School performance of immigrants: the generational gradient and the contribution of the life course stage at migration
Silvia Loi1, Joonas Pitkänen2, Heta Moustgaard2, Mikko Myrskyla1, Pekka Martikainen2
1Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, 2University of Helsinki

In this article, we use high-quality register data from Finland as a case study, to test the segmented assimilation hypothesis on school performance of immigrants by generation, including children of exogamous families; and if generational differences in school performance are explained by the stage at which the child immigrated in the receiving country. Preliminary results show a generational gradient of school performance, with 1st generation immigrants having grade point averages lower than natives and of other immigrant generations. The same pattern is observed for enrollment in education at ages 18-20. Educational level of parents is strongly associated with school performance, and explains a large part of the generational gradient. Next steps include the inclusion of: the life stage when the immigration of the child occurred; age of the biological mother at the time of child; divorce of the parents earlier in childhood; a contextual measure indicating the attended school.