How does Housework Influence the Motherhood Penalty?
Angela Clague1
1Department of Sociology, UCLA

National trends demonstrate that inequalities in overall earnings between men and women in the workforce continue to persist, which is especially pronounced for mothers. Previous research has identified that women perform the majority of the household labor in heterosexual partnerships, and that housework may contribute to the motherhood penalty for non-Hispanic (NH) white women. Using samples of NH white and black partnered women, I analyze data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) to explore how time allocation to housework influences the motherhood penalty. On average, I find that NH white women’s housework hours are associated with lower hourly wages, but the same effect is not observed for NH black women. However, each hour of housework has an additive effect on the motherhood penalty for NH black women in families with two and three or more children. Future analyses will also include single women and measure variation by class.